India is advanced in many spheres. India has the second-highest population and in the economy, it’s the biggest profitable market in the world. In these many years are women liberated from clutches of insecurity and unhealthy conditions?
The liberation of a woman should be from
1.Low work/job participation
2.Lack of political representation
3.Low or no literacy
5. Sanitation and malnutrition
6.Domestic violence & sexual assault
To name these are very few. In the seventy years the progress in liberating women is not enough.
Early age marriages: Recently in parliament, there is a committee constituted to study and increase the age of getting married for women. Actually, according to the current law, the age of getting married for a woman is 18 and for a man is 21. It is actually from the Sarada act, which was made and introduced in 1929 and was amended in 1978. We have been following the same. Even now after 91 years of that act, we still early age marriages have been happening in India. 29% of marriages have been happening before the proposed age, which is against law. The result of getting married at an early age to a woman could be aversive:
High fertility rate: High maternal mortality rate, the pathetic truth is, India stood 2nd in highest maternal mortality rate. Early marriages may result in woman subjected to domestic violence Malnutrition to both the mother and the child
Low literacy rate or lack of education: As per the 86th constitution’s amendment, every child between 6 years to 14 should be educated compulsorily. Though the government has taken many initiatives, still women are lagging behind men. As per 2011, the literacy rate of women in India is 64.46% and men’s literacy rate is 82 %.
Factors Hindering women to reach school or college: Traditional conservatism Lack of social consciousness among women Sexual violence and assault in educational institutions
Lack of political representation: To achievement equality, for the development of their potential and to make their voice audible, for self-determination and representation
No voice – no approach: If there is no voice how can the problems faced by women be solved? In Parliament, the representation of the lady representatives is 11% and in the state assembly is 9%. Though the women politicians have shown better results in their elected constituencies. Still, their number is very less.
Sanitation and Malnutrition: In Sanitation, we should discuss the menstruation. Menstruation is natural and biological which is the reason for our birth. In India still, some people feel that during menstruation, women should not touch them. And many restrictions have been imposed but it’s not right. It’s very natural. 1. No hygiene procedure of discarding the used pads
2. Lack of availability of sanitary pads
3. Lack of awareness to be hygiene
According to family and health surveys, only 18% of women have been using sanitary pads, rest have been still following the same domestic ways of keeping themselves hygiene. This may lead to less hygiene and infections as well. Many girls have been skipping school due to PMS (Premenstrual syndrome)
Malnutrition: Malnutrition is another big problem in India. Women due to early marriages and poverty, women have been suffering and could not fulfill their stomachs. As per the National family and health survey, about 22.9% of Indian women are underweight. Though many schemes like Anganvadi, Pradhan Mantri Mathru Vandhan yojana, and Poshan Abhiyan, etc. still have the same situation in India.
Domestic violence and sexual assault: According to the National Crime Record Bureau, the average rate of rape cases are 63 for one lakh
Reasons: Patriarchal structure of Indian society, flaws in the judiciary, secondary status of women, and the impact of pornography.
Less work participation of women: Although the difficulties are there some women are fulfilling their dreams of education. After their education, many girls could not achieve their goals which are related to jobs. Low acceptability of women, violence at workplaces, problems of unequal wages, no facilities at the workplace, no safety measures at the workplace, discrimination in hiring, etc. According to NSSO, one-third of (1/3rd) in farm laborers are women. The professional population of women is about just 15%
Way Forward: Society’s attitude towards women should be changed and also strong judiciary concerned about women should opt for women’s grievances. Law enforcement should not be diluted due to political influences and policies of government not be biased and should be equal to everyone. An inclusive mechanism for women all dimensional development should be there.